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Results Based Accountability™ (RBA)

Results Based Accountability™ (RBA)¹ is as an outcomes management framework that can be used by government agencies and providers to identify and work towards achieving results/outcomes for communities, whānau and clients.

RBA is used both internationally and within New Zealand. In New Zealand RBA is used across a wide range of sectors including social services, health and disability, local government, Whānau Ora, community development, environmental development, sports and recreation, and commercial sectors.

RBA is incorporated within the Contracting Framework as the mechanism to support an increased focus on outcomes in government contracting. 


Three key RBA concepts

There are three key concepts linked to RBA:

  • Two types of accountability - Population and Performance
  • Three types of performance measures - How much did we do? How well did we do it? Is anyone better off?
  • Seven questions - working from ends to means to move us from talk to action to make life better for our families/whānau, children/tamariki, and communities.

Population Accountability is about improving conditions of wellbeing for whole populations. It emphasises how multiple stakeholders can share accountability to achieve results for whole populations. Success is measured by a range of indicators linked to the results.

Performance Accountability is about a provider, agency or service system holding accountability to deliver outcomes to client populations.

Three types of performance measures are used to measure success: How much did we do? How well did we do it? And most importantly, is anyone better off? The reference to ‘anyone’ relates to the client or clients of the programme, service or initiative.

Seven questions enable stakeholders to identify the means (strategic/action plans) linked to achieving agreed ‘ends’ (population results/outcomes or client results/outcomes).


RBA Resources

A full overview of the RBA framework is available from the following websites: or

Ministry of Social Development’s RBA Implementation Guide and Resources. This website includes New Zealand examples of RBA in practice. 

Training videos

This 45-minute video (in 4 parts) provides an introduction to RBA.

Results Based Accountability (RBA) Introduction 

Last updated 28 February 2017